United States Pretrial Services Agency

Eastern District of Michigan

Radio Frequency and Global Positioning Satellite (GPS)

U.S. Pretrial Services officers use radio frequency or GPS technology in supervising persons with a location monitoring bond condition. A tamper-resistant transmitter on the ankle or wrist is worn 24 hours a day. The Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts contracts with monitoring companies to provide equipment and around-the-clock electronic and GPS surveillance to U.S. pretrial services offices nationwide. The monitoring centers provide daily reports that document program participants’ activities 24 hours a day. They also track all key events and report them promptly to the officers who supervise persons on home confinement. Key events include equipment tampering, unauthorized absence from home, failure to return home after an authorized absence, and leaving home early or returning home late. Key events also may be triggered by loss of electrical power or phone service. Participants must notify officers immediately if they lose electrical power or phone service, if they remove the transmitter because of an emergency, or if they experience any problems with the monitoring equipment.

Location Monitoring Technology Options

Radio Frequency (a.k.a. RF) / Cellular or Landline

  • Cost is $2.66 per day (landline) or $3.62 per day (cellular)
  • There is no battery to charge

Global Positioning Satellite (a.k.a. GPS) / Medium-High Reporting Intervals

  • Allows for continuous tracking of a defendant’s whereabouts 24/7
  • Cost is $4.07 - $4.17 per day depending on reporting interval
  • The defendant is required to replace a removeable battery once or twice daily.

Voice Verification

  • Requires a landline phone and using a person’s voice to confirm they are home.
  • Cost is $1.52 per day


  • SmartLINK is smart phone application (app) that is downloaded to the participant’s mobile device, allowing the participant and officer to easily communicate.
  • SmartLINK has the following functionalities: biometric facial check-ins; self-reporting; LM schedule submissions; an event calendar; text messaging; video conferencing; media management; my information; community resources; and supervision terms.
  • May be used with any component (curfew, home detention, home incarceration);
  • Cost is $0.60/day

Location Monitoring Restrictions


  • Set by the Court or as directed by Pretrial Services (to include as abroad or restrictive of a schedule as deemed appropriate)

Home Detention

  • Defendant restricted to their residence at all times except for employment; education; religious services; medical; substance abuse, or mental health treatment; attorney visits; court appearances; and court ordered obligations.

Optional Added Parameters of Home Detention

  • Discretionary Leave: consists of officer-approved schedules that are considered above and beyond what is authorized by the releasing authority that may fall within an officer’s discretion” (Home Detention definition). Example: social and family activities, prosocial events/activities, gym membership, funeral, library, child-related school activities, movies, concerts, and sport related activities; list is not all inclusive. In the Eastern District of Michigan, discretionary leave must be authorized by the Court either on the Order Setting Conditions of Release (OSCR), a signed Motion, Stipulation and Order, or Petition for Action on Conditions of Pretrial Release (PS8).
  • Essential Leave: consists of officer-approved schedules for personal needs in order to maintain a basic standard of living.” Examples include: barber/salon, grocery shopping, banking, parent/teacher meetings, vehicle maintenance, and bill payment; list is not all inclusive. The specific length of the approved leave should depend on the time it takes to complete the essential leave, along with travel time. In the Eastern District of Michigan, any essential leave must be approved by the Court and specified in the Order Setting Conditions of Release, a signed Motion, Stipulation and Order, or Petition for Action on Conditions of Pretrial Release (PS8) for any defendant under Home Detention. Officers are not permitted to make a request for Essential Leave for any defendant under Home Incarceration.

Home Incarceration

  • Defendant is restricted to 24-hour-a-day lock-down except for medical necessities and court appearances or other activities specifically approved by the Court.